Long-term follow-up reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes

189 people were recruited for the start of studies, and 70 percent completed the five-year program. Many participants experienced very good results. Credit: Shutterstock, NTB

Type 2 diabetes is an inherited disease, but habits can affect the risk of getting it. Obesity due to fatty and high-calorie foods, often in combination with limited activity, increases the risk considerably.

A new study at NTNU and St. Olavs Hospital Center for Obesity has followed people in the risk group for five years. Participants were offered organized physical activity and courses on diet.

“We see that follow-up from the health service in Norwegian municipalities over a longer period can help reduce the risk of developing diabetes 2 and improve people’s health,” says Ingrid Sørdal Følling, researcher at NTNU’s health and health department. Breastfeeding.

Følling works in the Center for Obesity Research, Surgical Clinic at St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim. The results of the study have been published in the BMJ Open.

Acting helps

Worldwide, 350 million people have type 2 diabetes. Approximately 270,000 people in Norway have the disease, a number that has almost doubled in the last 20 years. Another 10% of the population is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Affected individuals either do not produce enough insulin, or their cells resist the hormone, called insulin resistance. This affects blood sugar levels and disrupts the metabolism of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body.

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However, it often helps to take action, new research shows. Changes in habits can be beneficial – if you actually implement them. This is where long-term follow-up is needed.

Positive results for many participants

All study participants had a BMI of 25 or higher. That equates to being overweight or more. The survey started with 189 people, and about 70% completed the program. Many of them had very good results.

“The highest risk group at the start included 65 people. Of this group, more than 40%, or 27 people, reduced their risk to average over the five years,” says Følling.

Nine people already had symptoms of type 2 diabetes when they started, and six of them reduced their symptoms.

Other research has shown that simple lifestyle advice from healthcare professionals does not reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, the participants in this study were offered physical activity and diet courses for one year, and were followed up with measurements over a longer period, for this study for a full five years. Having a long-term commitment seems to yield much better results.

Youngest and heaviest participants dropped out

54 of the participants dropped out during the five years, corresponding to just over 30%. Many of the youngest participants and those with the highest BMI, waist circumference and weight measurement were among the dropouts.

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The researchers do not know exactly why these individuals chose not to continue. There may be socio-economic reasons, as the people who did not participate in the duration of the project had less education and fewer were employed. Another possible explanation is that the training and courses were planned during the day, which could have made it more difficult for younger people to attend.

Past experience shows that people who most need the offers to change their habits are more often those who do not take them up or who stop the program.

Gene map can identify heart disease risk for people with type 2 diabetes More information: Ingrid Sørdal Følling et al., Prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity and obesity in the Norwegian primary health care system: a longitudinal design with 60 months of follow-up results and a cross-sectional design with comparison of dropouts versus completers, BMJ Open (2022). DOI: 10.1136 / bmjopen-2021-054841

Provided by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Quote: Long-term follow-up reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes (2022, April 7) Retrieved April 8, 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-04-long-term-follow-up-diabetes.html

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